Sorry! This site requires JavaScript. Virtually nothing will work without it. Please enable it in your browser.

Betraying Spinoza: The Renegade Jew Who Gave Us Modernity

Betraying Spinoza In 1656, Amsterdam's Jewish community declared Baruch Spinoza excommunicated because he denied the immortality of the soul, the divinity of the scripture, and challenged the idea that the Torah was literally given by God. His writings remain as provocative today. Full description

Important places

Amsterdam (468)


Noord-Holland (507)


Netherlands (1,293)

Other geographical areas

Benelux (1,495)